Contents Vol. 48
GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY
The Journal of the Entomological Society of New South Wales Inc.
Insects and art blend together.
Mike Bouffard OAM and Jocelyn Bornemissza
The history behind artwork created from pinned beetle specimens currently on display at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery is presented along with colour illustrations of twelve of these. [split into three due to file size]
General & Applied Entomology 48: 1–12.
Persoonia as larval host plants of Aphaenosperma orientalis Britton (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) in New South Wales.
Garry A. Webb
The larval host plants for Aphanosperma orientalis Britton are recorded for the first time. Adults were reared from both Persoonia levis (Cav.) Domin and Persoonia lanceolata Andrews (Proteaceae) from several locations in southern Sydney.
First detection of and a review of Solenopsis Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hempitera: Pseudococcidae) in New South Wales.
Bernard C Dominiak and Peter S Gillespie
The first detection of solenopsis mealybug in New South Wales at Yetman, northeast of Moree in February 2017 is reported. Host plants and possible control measures are discussed.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 15–16.
The European silverfish in Hobart.
Graeme B. Smith
Specimens of the anthropophilic silverfish Lepisma saccharinum, common in Europe, are reported from Hobart, Tasmania and the history and distribution of this species in Australia is discussed.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 17–18.
Some observations on rearing the silverfish Heterolepisma sclerophyllum Smith (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae: Heterolepismatinae).
Graeme B. Smith
A basic method for rearing Heterolepisma sclerophyllum is provided. It appears that this species might only take water by mouth in contrast to the Ctenolepismatinae which are capable of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere via their anus.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 19–20.
BOOK REVIEW. The Invertebrate World of Australia’s Subtropical Rainforests
General & Applied Entomology 48: 22.
An evaluation of the efficacy of Hydramethylnon-based baits on African Big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) in Australia.
Garry A. Webb.
Hydramethylnon-based baits are commonly used for the control or eradication of tramp ants. Four small unreplicated trials were conducted in different localities (Lord Howe Island, Sydney and Darwin) to demonstrate the effectiveness of hydramethylnon-based baits on African big-headed ant. Three trials were whole suburban property treatments using the same bait and the other trial was conducted in peri-urban bushland comparing multiple bait treatments. Hydramethylnon-based baits were effective in either temporary elimination or a substantial reduction in abundance in all trials but ant abundance rebounded in the two longer-term trials.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 23–30.
Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy), an aphid species new to Australia (Hempitera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)
Dinah Hales and Peter Gillespie
We report the first record in Australia of the crape myrtle aphid, Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy). This aphid has been spreading aggressively around the world and reaches large populations on the ornamental tree crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). It is not generally regarded as causing serious damage to its host plant, but can have nuisance value through dropping honeydew on underlying plants or vehicles. The aphid is holocyclic and monoecious wherever its annual cycle has been studied: i.e. it produces males and sexual egg-laying females in autumn and the overwintering eggs produce parthenogenetic females in spring.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 31–32.
Review of Less-stick Bag Moth Trigonocyttara clandestina Turner (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), an Australian native in South Eastern Australia
Bernie C. Dominiak and Bernie Millynn
Australia’s biosecurity system includes surveillance for early detection of exotic insect incursions at high risk sites and ports-of-entry. These surveys often add to the knowledge of endemic and native species. A biosecurity survey in southern New South Wales detected less-stick case moth, Trigonocyttara clandestina, on a single Pinus radiata tree. We reviewed the known records on T. clandestina and host range in south eastern Australia. This Australian native insect was detected sporadically (42 times) over 90 years and records indicate it was distributed in south eastern Australia. There were two likely populations, in the north and south of the eastern coast. The recent detection between these populations may be a link between these two known populations.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 33–36.
New host record for Metallic Green Tomato Fly Lamprolonchaea brouniana (Bezzi) in olives (Olea europaea L.)
Bernie C. Dominiak, L. Semeraro, M.J. Blacket, A.C. Englefield, A. Mellberg
The general public often contribute samples of fruit and insects. During one of these biosecurity activities, olives with insect damage were collected in Victoria. Metallic-green tomato flies (Lamprolonchaea brouniana Bezzi) were reared from olive samples. This record in olives is a new host record for L. brouniana.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 37–38.
Reproductive capacity of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt in different host fruit – a field assessment in Southern New South Wales
Bernard C. Dominiak, Brett Kerruish and Daryl Cooper
Tephritid fruit flies are major economic pests and are an impediment to trade. Different host fruits are known to vary in their capacity for fruit flies to complete their life cycle. However, currently there are few reports that identify the capacity for Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt)) to complete their life cycle in different hosts. Here, we harvested backyard fruit from infested areas and assessed how many adult flies could be produced from a kilogram of fruit after field infestation. We found loquat, kumquat, peaches and nectarines (in that order) produced the highest number of Qfly adults (>175 adults per kg). This knowledge will assist pest managers and the development of trade standards.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 39–42.
Integrative Pest Management in northern NSW grains cropping: lessons learnt from industry focussed project
Nereda Christian, Rachel Lawrence and Nigel Andrew
We review the status of insect pests and beneficials in northern NSW, the role of Integrated Pest Management, the potential impacts of climate change on these interactions, and the ability of farmers to adapt and prepare to manage insect pests and beneficials in grain crops and adjacent areas. This outreach and extension project was undertaken between 2009 and 2012. The primary considerations that need to be made about pest insects and reducing reliance on prophylactic chemical sprays are in understanding the role that adjacent remnant vegetation plays in harbouring beneficial insects and having an understanding of both pest and beneficial insect biology. Here, we also assess the current support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in northern NSW and identify the barriers farmers face in implementing and using IPM. We then evaluate methods used to integrate an Information-Based Service to growers and agronomists using extension activities, workshops, website, blog and insect identification service. Finally, we identify capacity to facilitate practice change in pest management using the IPM workshops, extension activities and integrating research into this knowledge transfer.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 43–59.
Bioclimatic niche modelling projects a potential shift in distribution and abundance of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia
Marja Simpson, Bernard C Dominiak, Ian J McGowen, Jason J Crean and Tim J F Sides
Horticultural production of imported hosts has contributed to Qfly spreading to all eastern Australian states. Market access for horticultural production was protected by the creation of pest-free areas such as the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone (FFEZ) and Greater Sunraysia Pest Free Area (GSPFA) to assist trade from south eastern Australia. These zones had hot, dry summers and cold winters which were less likely to support Qfly establishment and persistence. Eradication was therefore more likely. In recent years, the FFEZ and GSPFA experienced an increase in Qfly outbreaks during the growing season, which may be attributed to an increased summer rainfall and warmer winters. This is an observed change in Australia’s climate since the year 2000. Such climatic conditions enhance the suitability of southern Australian regions for Qfly establishment and proliferation. To assess this, the potential current and future distribution and abundance of Qfly was modelled using two global climate models and two emission scenarios. Results indicated that climate change is likely to cause a southern and coastal shift in the climatic suitability and support an increase in abundance. Horticultural production areas that are currently modelled as marginal for Qfly infestation were projected to become suitable by 2030, with areas that are currently unsuitable projected to become marginal. This change will place horticultural production areas under increasing pressure from Qfly and will place new challenges on area wide management, requiring the development of alternative control measures.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 61–74.
The use of industry and non-industry networks to provide supporting surveillance data for Tomato Potato Psyllid Bactercera cockerelli (Sulc) (HEMIPTERA: TRIOZIDAE) absence claims in New South Wales
Bernie Dominiak, Ainsley Seago, Louise Rossiter, Robert Chin, Stephen Wade and Peter Worsley
The tomato-potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (TPP) was detected in Western Australia in February 2017. To determine whether this pest was present in New South Wales, the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) conducted surveillance using yellow sticky traps at two types of sites considered to be at risk of TPP introduction. Surveys were coordinated across urban and peri-urban home gardens and Bunnings stores to quickly demonstrate whether it was present in NSW. In total, traps were deployed at 201 sites and 388 traps returned for identification using morphological and molecular techniques. The returned traps yielded 78 specimens of native Australian Triozidae, but TPP was not detected in any of the sticky traps assessed in autumn 2017.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 75–80.
Review of ethyl formate use in Australia and possible future uses for emerging biosecurity risks
Robert Ryan and Bernard C. Dominiak
Ethyl formate (EF) is a historical fumigant of dried fruit, with uses extended over time to horticulture and cereal grains. EF is effective against stored product insects and has a synergist effect when applied as a non-flammable EF/carbon dioxide (CO2) mix on stored grain insects. Additionally, EF is efficacious on horticulture insect pests. EF is an effective bulk grain fumigant with sorption issues being accommodated by rapid dispensing. The lower toxicity EF usually requires relatively high dose (70g/m3) however its predominant attribute, like methyl bromide (MBr), is short exposure times i.e. hours not days. EF can be used a much lower temperatures than most other fumigants. The volatile and flammable EF is a proven fumigant and a candidate replacement for the ozone depleting MBr. Mixing with an inert gas is required to achieve a non-flammable mixture. Our review found 78 insects that could be controlled by EF, albeit at different rates or exposure times, or in combination with other gases. These insects include five weevils, six aphids, six thrips, seven moths, 18 scale and mealy bugs, and ten beetles. Of these, EF is registered in Australia to control 41 of these pests. The brown marmorated stink bug, Khapra beetle, tomato potato psyllid, tramp ants and other biosecurity threats are good candidates for EF fumigation.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 81–90.
Overwintering biology of three Calaphidine aphids (HEMIPTERA: STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE) and observations on other aphid species
Dinah F. Hales
This paper reports the overwintering biology of aphid species in Sydney NSW, including Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) and Shivaphis celti Das, both recently arrived in Australia. S. kahawaluokalani is shown to be holocyclic and monoecious, i.e. produces sexual forms in autumn and lays overwintering eggs on its single host, crape myrtle. No sexual individuals of S. celti were found by the end of observations and it is provisionally considered as anholocyclic (continuously parthenogenetic) in the Sydney region. Likewise, only one ovipara (no males) was found amongst large populations of Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae Matsumura, and it appears also to be functionally anholocyclic. These three species are all members of the sub-family Calaphidinae. Observations on the diversity of other aphid species are noted and discussed in terms of recent climatic events.
General & Applied Entomology 48: 91–100.