Contents Vol. 32
GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY
The Journal of the Entomological Society of New South Wales Inc.
VOLUME 32 CONTENTS
DOMINIAK, B.C., GILMOUR, A.R., KERRUISH, B. and WHITEHEAD, D. Detecting low populations of Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) with McPhail and Lynfield traps ……………49
A comparison of the effectiveness of McPhail traps using citrus and protein autolysate wet baits and the Lynfield trap using cuelure showed that the cuelure system was significantly better at detecting low levels of sterile Queensland Fruit Fly present in March at Griffith, New South Wales. There is no value in the continued use of McPhail traps for monitoring Queensland Fruit Fly outbreaks New South Wales Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone in the March-April period.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 49-53
FLETCHER, M.J., DAY, M.F. and HUMPHREY, M. The discovery of the holotype of Ledromorpha planirostris (Donovan) (Cicadellidae: Ledrinae), with notes on other Australian Auchenorrhyncha species described by Edward Donovan. .……….….23
Evidence is presented to link a female specimen of Ledromorpha planirostris (Donovan) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae) held in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, to the original description of Fulgora planirostris by Donovan (1805) despite a difference in sex between the specimen and Donovan’s illustration of the species. Supporting information presented includes evidence that Donovan’s illustrations in other insect groups have been shown to have significant errors derived from Donovan’s methods of study, evidence that in 1818 Alexander Macleay bought material from the collection of Edward Francillon in whose collection Donovan’s type material was originally held and evidence derived from the physical attributes of the specimen itself. On the basis of this evidence, the female specimen of L. planirostris is recognised as the holotype of Fulgora planirostris Donovan. Recognition of the syntypes of Cicada pustulata Donovan and designation of a lectotype is also made. Implications of these discoveries for other Donovan species described from Australia are discussed.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 23-30
GILLESPIE, P. Observations on fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in New South Wales. .……..41
From November 1995 to June 1999 458 methyl eugenol, 298 cuelure and 156 med fly traps were used to monitor fruit flies across New South Wales exclusive of the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone. Bactrocera bancroftii (Tryon), B. batemani Drew, B. chorista (May), B. mayi (Hardy) and D. signatifrons (May) were recorded in NSW for the first time and their locations described. Range extensions of some species, already known to occur in NSW, were also defined. B. neohumeralis (Hardy) and B. endiandrae (Perkins and May) were trapped to the south of Sydney, extending their published range by more than 500 km whilst B. bryoniae (Tryon) although reputed to range south to Sydney was only caught south to Coffs Harbour. Many fruit fly species appear to have two flying periods, one in spring and another in autumn, with several species having a marked preference for one. or other of these seasons. There is a marked decline in abundance of several species during high summer. Several of the more abundant pest species like B. cacuminata (Hering) and B. tryoni (Froggatt) showed a marked increase in peculation during spring and a gradual reduction in numbers over the summer and autumn months but without a decrease in mid summer.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 41-47
GILLESPIE, P., STAPLES, J., KING, C., FLETCHER, M.J. and DOMINIAK, B.C. Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in New South Wales. …………..5
A survey for Aethina tumida (Murray) in beehives in New South Wales from October 2002 to January 2003 found 120 positive detections of the species out of more than 1000 samples received. This pest was found mainly in the west of the Sydney basin around Richmond and parts of the lower Blue Mountains but other satellite infestations were found in the Cowra area and around Stroud in the Hunter Valley. Small numbers of several other insects including a native species of Nitidulidae, Brachypeplus sp. was also found in hives widely across New South Wales.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 5-7
HERRON, G.A., GULLICK, G.C. and POWIS, K.J. Cross-resistance studies in cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover from Australian cotton. ..……………13
A number of insecticides were investigated for cross-resistance patterns using reference susceptible and resistant cotton aphid populations and standard bioassay methods. The highest levels of cross-resistance (>1500x at LC50) were detected to pirimicarb in omethoate-. and omethoate/bifenthrin resistant populations. Cross-resistance between the organophosphates and carbamates has caused these two groups to be considered the same for the purpose of resistance management. To reduce the likelihood of difficult to control resistant populations we suggest that omethoate, dimethoate or pirimicarb use be avoided and pirimicarb used only in conjunction with Integrated Pest Management. Further study is required to determine if the carbamates aldicarb and carbosulfan should be treated separately from pirimicarb.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 13-19
LEVOT, G.W. Insect fauna used to estimate the post-mortem interval of deceased persons. .…….………..31
The insects collected by police at the crime scene or by pathologists at post-mortem from the bodies of 132 deceased persons and presented for comment are reported. The samples were submitted with the hope of obtaining an estimate of the most likely post-mortem interval (PMI) to assist police investigations. Calliphoridae, particularly Calliphora augur, C. stygia, Chrysomya rufifacies and Ch. varipes, Muscidae, particularly Hydrotaea rostrata, Sarcophagidae and Phoridae were the most represented Diptera. Beetles belonging to the Staphylinidae, Histeridae. Dermestidae. Silphidae and Cleridae were collected in a small proportion of cases. The absence of species succession during winter confounded estimates of PMI. Confidence in PMI estimates would increase with greater knowledge of the larval growth rates of common blowfly species, seasonal effects on growth rates and blowfly activity, differences between insects infesting bodies located inside verses outside buildings and significance of inner city sites compared to bushland locations. Further research to address deficiencies in knowledge of these subjects is needed.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 31-39
NICHOLAS, A.H. and THWAITE, W.G. Toxicity of chemicals commonly used in Australian apple orchards to the European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae). ….……….. 9
Forficula auricularia L., a key predator of the apple pest woolly aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann. The relative toxicity to F. auricularia and an assessment of each chemical’s potential to disrupt the biological control of E. lanigerum is given. The chemicals, alpha-cypermethrin, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos. fenthion and parathion-methyl were highly toxic to F. auricularia and therefore likely to be highly disruptive to the control of E. lanigerum. Endosulfan, imidacloprid and tau-fluvalinate were assessed as moderately disruptive. The insecticides abamectin, fenoxycarb, pirimicarb, propargite, tebufenozide, tebufenpyrad and vamidothion; the fungicides, bupirimate. dithianon, dodine, mancozeb. penconazole and thiram; the crop regulators benzyladenine and ethephon and the herbicide glyphosate were all shown to have low toxicity to F. auricularia and therefore were considered unlikely to be disruptive to the biological control of woolly aphid.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 9-12
SPOONER-HART, R.N. and HERRON, G.A. Laboratory based relative pesticide efficacy against cyclamen mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks)(Acari: Tarsonemidae). ……………….. 61
This is the first instance of laboratory pesticide testing of Phytonemus pallidus. Six pesticides and two horticultural spray oils were evaluated under laboratory conditions against P. pallidus, using a Potter spray tower. Pesticide toxicity fell into three distinct groups, the antibiotic abamectin, conventional miticides and oils. Both oils proved ineffective, and a heterogeneous response was demonstrated against these latter products.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 61-64
WELDON, W.C. Effectiveness of coloured unbaited sticky traps for monitoring dispersal of gamma-irradiated Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). ………..…….… 55
Sticky (unbaited) trap catches of irradiated Bactrocera tryoni were approximately 12% of those of pot-type traps baited with cuelure. Sticky traps painted with daylight fluorescent yellow or green were equally effective but were no better than unpainted (control) sticky traps for capturing B. tryoni. No association was identified between recaptures in sticky traps and host status of the tree in which the trap was placed. Sticky traps may be useful for detecting the location of emergence foci of endemic flies but were insufficiently sensitive to offer an alternative to current monitoring techniques.
General and Applied Entomology 32: 55-60