Contents Vol. 29
GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY
The Journal of the Entomological Society of New South Wales Inc.
VOLUME 29 CONTENTS
BISHOP, A.L., GRIFFITHS, N.W., RICHARDS, S. BARCHIA, I.M. and SPOHR, L.J. Dung beetles in the Williams and Hunter River catchments of NSW. ………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Surveys of dung beetles were conducted in the Williams and Hunter River catchments of NSW in 1997/98. The aim was to obtain information on the composition, distribution and relative abundances of those species likely to reduce the movement of pollutants from bovine dung to waterways and water storage systems. A complex of six introduced and four native species was common. Some sites were consistently associated with particular species although there were wide variations in numbers between sites. There was pronounced seasonal activity in the complex with the introduced Onthophagus gazella F. and Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) (plus Onitis alexis Klug in 1998) and the native Onthophagus granulatus Boheman the most abundant and active species from November to May. Activity was low at other times and was dominated by O. granulatus. As a result, the winter active species Bubas bison L. has been released to fill the largely vacant niche in the cooler months.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 5-9
DEECE, K., DOMINIAK, B.C. & BARCHIA, I.M. Light management and egg production of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), in a mass rearing facility. …………………………………………………………….. 59
Lighting conditions in a mass rearing facility were changed in the adult rooms after one year of operation. Neon tubes were replaced with triphosphate tubes and skylights were added. An increase in the light intensity and a natural dusk resulted in an average increase of 43% in egg production for the three weeks after the change compared with the three weeks before the change or an average increase of 30% using all observation data.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 59-62
DOMINIAK, B.C., McLEOD, L.J. & CAGNACCI, M. Review of suppression program using three ground release methods of sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) at Wagga Wagga, NSW in 1996/97. ………………………………………………………… 49
Sterile Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) were released at Wagga Wagga to suppress the wild fruit fly population. A total of 82.8 million sterile pupae were delivered to Wagga Wagga, with an overall emergence rate of 66.9% and male recapture rate of 0.016% (0.0246% corrected for emergence) for the nine month release program. Different release methods were selected depending on availability of labour, climate and sterile flies all of which changed considerably during the program. Adult flies were released using cages and bags, and pupal releases used the bed technique. For the entire program, the emergence rates were 87.1% for cages, 89.9% for bags and 63.6% for beds. However the three methods seemed comparable with over 80% emergence when all three methods were used in February. Flies did not tend to leave the cages and bags in the colder months however they more readily left the beds. The optimum densities of the cages were about 800,000 pupae per cage; optimum loading levels for bag and bed release techniques require further research. Wild Qfly were trapped throughout the year including winter, which was contrary to expectations. The CLIMEX model was used to rank the climate at Wagga Wagga for fruit fly survival and the daily survival rate decrement formula was used to compare quality of sterile flies.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 49-57
DOMINIAK, B.C., RAFFERTY, T.D. & BARCHIA, I.M. A survey of travelers carrying host fruit of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), into a fruit fly free area in 1996/97. ………………………………………. 39
Roadblocks were conducted on 32 days at the northern and eastern sides of the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone (FFEZ) during 1996/97 to monitor the risk posed by road travellers into and through the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area. Drivers of all vehicles stopped by roadblocks were asked to answer a questionnaire, and vehicles inspected for fruit. The 3579 completed survey forms were analysed for trends according to types of travellers, origin and destination of travellers, and fruit carried by travellers. Travellers from the North Coast of New South Wales and Queensland were high risk travel origins. Families and retirees were higher risk types of travellers. More fruit was found in cars towing a caravan than in cars without caravans. Local residents made up 71% of the traffic entering the FFEZ with tourists making up a smaller proportion of the total traffic flow. Pome fruit and bananas were the most commonly carried fruit. Compared with previous surveys, the average number of fruit carried increased slightly to 7.4 per vehicle but the proportion of vehicles carrying fruit declined to 12.7% of the traffic. Implication of the analyses are discussed in relation to incursion risk management and community awareness strategies.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 39-44
DOMINIAK, B.C., SCHINAGL, L. & NICOL. H. Impact of fluorescent marker dyes on emergence of sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) Diptera: Tephritidae). …………………………………. 45
In three trials, twelve fluorescent dye colours were applied to pupae of Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt)) to evaluate the effect on emergence. Nova Red and orange colours appeared to have minimal adverse impact on emergence. Emergence percentages varied from 78% in the best treatments to 56% in the worst colour treatments. Recommendations are made for the use of different dye colours.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 45-47
MEATS, A. & FAY, F.A.C. Distribution of mating frequency among males of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), in relation to temperature, acclimation and chance. ………………………………………. 27
Male Bactrocera tryoni tend to mate on several occasions when given the opportunity. The distribution of mating frequency among individuals at normal culture temperatures appears to be determined mainly by chance thus it is unlikely that male mating success could be improved for SIT by selection. However, at near-threshold temperatures there may be some variation in mating frequency due to variation in innate mating propensity and hence scope for selection for such conditions. There is a general lowering of mating frequency at lower temperatures. The very low mean frequency that is observed at 18°C, which is just above mating threshold, is not due to most flies being below threshold but is due to most flies mating, each with a low frequency. Prior temperature acclimation had no significant effect on the results.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 27-30
SEXTON, S.B. & IL’ICHEV, A.L. Pheromone mating disruption with reference to Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta (Busck.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Literature review. …………………………………………………………. 63
Mating disruption is recognized as a powerful tool for control of OFM and is used by the majority of peach growers in Australia in regions where this insect is a pest. In some situations, control has been less than perfect and reasons for this are examined. Commercial formulations appear to have acceptable performance. Migration of mated moths from untreated peaches and other hosts is likely to be the principal cause of breakdown of control under mating disruption. Flights of females have been measured and are typically 160 metres with distances of up to 3 kilometres recorded. Movement can be focussed onto attractive susceptible peach crops, further magnifying the effect. This problem has been overcome by area wide use of mating disruption both in South Africa and Australia. Resistance to mating disruption has not been recorded but the possibility exists. Potential mechanisms are discussed.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 63-68
SINGH, P., BEATTIE, G.A.C., CLIFT, A.D., WATSON, D.M., FURNESS, G.O., TESORIERO, L., RAJAKULENDRAN, V., PARKES, R.A. & SCANES, M. Petroleum spray oils and tomato integrated pest and disease management in southern Australia. ………………………………………………………………… 69
Control of a range of pests of fresh and processing tomatoes by petroleum spray oils was compared with conventional synthetic pesticide-based programs used by commercial farmers. In an initial experiment on fresh tomatoes a significant negative exponential relationship was found between the level of tomato russet mite infestations and the concentration of petroleum spray oil applied to run-off (0.5-2% v/v). Leaf area declined as infestations increased. Some stunting of growth was apparent after 8-9 weekly 2% sprays but no other visible signs of phytotoxicity were observed after 11 sprays. In a subsequent larger fresh tomato experiment control of budworms, green peach aphid, greenhouse whitefly and two-spotted mite was significantly better in a 1% oil treatment than in a conventional pesticide treatment. However, Queensland fruit fly was not controlled by the oil and yields in oil treated plots were lower than in conventionally treated plots. Sprays in each treatment were applied at volumes ranging from 500 to 2,800 L/ha as plants grew. In the processing tomato experiments, yields, fruit quality (total soluble solids and acidity), and control of budworms (mostly Helicoverpa armigera Hubner), thrips, leafhoppers, greenhouse whitefly, green peach aphid and two-spotted mite generally either equalled or were significantly better in 1% oil treatments (250 to >1,800 L of spray/ha) than in conventional pesticide treatments (110 to 500 L of spray/ha). Significant relationships were derived for rotten fruit versus yield of ripe tomatoes and budworm damage. A purpose-built fan-assisted sprayer with an electric motor was used to apply the oil sprays in the processing tomato experiments. Spray coverage with this machine was significantly better than that given by broadacre air-assisted and boom sprayers typically used in the industry. A comparison of pesticide and application costs indicated that an oil-based pest and disease management program would be cheaper than a synthetic pesticide program in some instances but more expensive in others. The sustainability and other benefits of oil-based IPDM are discussed in relation to these costs.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 69-93
SMITH, N.J. & SMITH, D. Studies on the Flatid Jamella australiae Kirkaldy causing dieback in Pandanus tectorius var. pedunculatus (A.Br). Domin on the Sunshine and Gold Coasts of Southeast Queensland. ………………………….. 11
The flatid Jamella australiae Kirkaldy has caused extensive dieback of pandanus Pandanus tectorius var. pedunculatus on Queensland’s Sunshine Coast and Gold Coast. J. australiae is a native species that has spread to these areas from north Queensland within the last 10 to 15 years. Flatid populations on pandanus in north Queensland are low and non-damaging. A survey of 3220 pandanus trees in Noosa National Park during 1995 showed a high correlation between tree health and flatid numbers (P<0.001). The percentage of trees dead or in poor health increased from 45.8% in October 1995 to 66.4% in September 1996 and 75% in July 1997. By March 1998, 45% of trees had died. Predatory syrphids and lace wings commonly attacked young flatids but did not control damaging populations. No parasitoids were found in southeast Queensland early in the study but, in 1996, the egg parasitoid Aphanomerus sp. was recorded parasitising up to 20% of egg rafts and 10% of eggs within a raft. At Dimbulah in northeast Queensland two other species, Aphanomerus sp. nr pusillus Perkins and Ooencyrtus sp. were recorded parasitising up to 80% of the egg rafts and 80% of eggs within a raft. The Dimbulah parasitoid species were released at sites in southeast Queensland in April 1996 and April 1997. Ooencyrtus sp. established at one site but has remained at relatively low levels. A‘ sp. nr. pusillus was established in 1997 at 20 release sites from where it has dispersed to most infested areas on the Sunshine and Gold Coasts. In most instances, it is giving high parasitism levels similar to those at Dimbulah and at a third of the sites, an 80% reduction in flatid numbers.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 11-20
SMITH, N.J. & SMITH, D. Systemic insecticidal control of the Flatid Jamella australiae Kirkaldy, a pest on Pandanus in Southeast Queensland. ………………………………………………………………………… 21
From about 1990 to 1998, the flatid Jamella australiae Kirkaldy has caused severe dieback and death of pandanus from Noosa to Coolangatta in southeast Queensland. The systemic insecticides imidacloprid, monocrotophos and dimethoate were tested against the pest by applying them as spot-sprays into the growing points of the pandanus heads or as injections into the trunk and/or main limbs. All three insecticides gave effective control when applied as a spot-spray of 100 mL per head at rates of 1.75, 5.25 and 17.5 g.a.i. L-1 (imidacloprid), 12 g.a.i. L-1 (monocrotophos) and 20 g.a.i. L-1 (dimethoate). Based on safety, cost and residual efficacy, imidacloprid spot-sprayed onto the pandanus growing points at 1.75 g.a.i. L-1 was the most efficient treatment, giving control for at least 12 months. Trunk injection of imidacloprid, using a mechanical injection system (Sidewinder), was also effective for over twelve months and was less labour intensive, safer to the applicator and less disruptive to the natural enemies of the flatid than were spot-sprays. Imidacloprid injected as a 1:1 mix with water was effective at 2.5, 5 and 10 mL of product per single trunk or main limb. The most efficient dose was 2.5 mL, minimising the cost and volume of fluid injected into the tree. Tissue damage was minimal using a 6 mm drill and a maximum injection pressure of about 700 kPa.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 21-25
THOMAS, B.J. & MEATS, A. The relation of dose rate and light intensity to the effect of bait spray formulations with the photo-insecticide Pfloxine B on the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). …………….. 1
Adults of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) were tested at a range of light intensities with aqueous bait spray formulations of 4% yeast hydrolysate containing a range of concentrations of the photo-insecticide Phloxine B. Under a high light intensity (of approximately 500 muEm-2s-1), concentrations in the range 0.1-5.0% Phloxine B all resulted in a mean survival time of about 2 h and, in each case, over 85 % of flies were killed within 5 h and virtually all flies within 24 h of ingesting the dye. Concentrations of 0.05% and 0.01% took 2 and 10 d respectively to kill all flies. The time taken to kill flies with a given concentration of Phloxine B was also dependent on light intensity, with the logarithm of time decreasing linearly with the logarithm of light intensity. In almost complete darkness (<0.1 muEm-2s-1), the dye remained potent in the insects for up to 10 d, killing the flies quickly when they were subsequently placed in strong light.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 1-4
WATSON, D.M. DU, T.Y., XIONG, J.J., LIU, D.G., HUANG, M.D., RAE, D.J. & BEATTIE, G.A.C. Functional responses of, and mutual interference in Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and implications for its use as a biocontrol agent. …………………………………………………………. 31
The functional responses of the first instar and adult female Aleurodothrips fasciapennis to different species (mainly Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus) and developmental stages (egg, crawler, second instar and adult female) of diaspidid scales were compared in the laboratory. The aim was to gain some insights as to the prey preferences and of age-related differences in the predatory behaviour of A. fasciapennis. The effect of predator density on the killing efficiency of adult female thrips was also determined to assess indirectly if mutual interference occurred. First instar and adult female A. fasciapennis were ineffective predators of second instar and adult female C. aonidum but effective predators of scale eggs and crawlers. Prey handling time (Th), estimated using the random predator equation, was lower on egg than on crawler prey because crawlers are mobile and so more difficult to handle than eggs. First instar A. fasciapennis were more effective predators of crawlers than were adult females but adult females were more effective egg predators. This could be because first instar thrips moved faster and were more responsive to interference from prey than adult females. Mutual interference among adult females was evident with the decline in their killing efficiency with increasing predator density. Two implications of our results for the use of A. fasciapennis as a biocontrol of diaspidid pests on Australian citrus are discussed. These are the consequences of mutual interference for mass rearing A. fasciapennis, and the potential lack of direct host competition between established biocontrol agents and A. fasciapennis and how, therefore, A. fasciapennis may be a useful complement to existing biocontrol.
General and Applied Entomology 29: 31-37