Contents Vol. 23
GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY
The Journal of the Entomological Society of New South Wales Inc.
VOLUME 23 CONTENTS
BISHOP, A. L. and McKENZIE, H.J. Key mortality factors of Merophyas duvulsana (Walker) (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) larvae in the Hunter Valley … 59
Fourteen parasitoid and three pathogenic species were recorded from Merophyas divulsana larvae on luceme in the Hunter Valley. The main mortality factors observed were identified as the fungal pathogen Zoophthora radicans and a nuclear-polyhedrosis virus, plus the parasitoids Apanteles tasmanica and Voriella uniseta. Delayed density dependence was observed in Z. radicans and V. uniseta while the other two organisms were density independent. These natural mortality factors exercised a high degree of continuous pressure on M. divulsana larval numbers but did not prevent the occurrence of significant damage for the whole season. Their impact could be optimised by adherence to designated treatment thresholds.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 59-64
GULLAN, P. J. and VRANJIC, J. A. The taxonomy of the gum tree scales, Eriococcus confusus Maskell and E. coriaceus Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) …………………………………………… 21
The gum tree scales Eriococcus confusus Maskell and E. coriaceus Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) are common pests of urban plantings of eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. These two species can be difficult to distinguish due to some character variability in the structure of the adult females and their tests. Seasonal variation in the scores of three characters of the adult females of E. confusus and E. coriaceus are documented and discussed. The adult females and associated tests of both species are redescribed and illustrated to facilitate identification, and pigment characteristics are included as a valuable aid to identification. Eriococcus gregarius Froggatt’ is synonymised with E. confusus and diagnoses are included for three other eucalypt-infesting species of Eriococcus, E. picta Froggatt, E. tepperi Maskell and E. tesselatus Froggatt. A key is provided to allow the adult females of E. confusus and E. coriaceus to be distinguished from the adult females of 10 of the 11 other Australian Eriococcus species found on Eucalyptus.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 21-40
HOLTKAMP, R. H. and HORWOOD, M. A. Residual activity and persistence of insecticides toxic to Bruchophagus roddi Gussakovski (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) ……….. …………………………………… 9
The residual activity of sixteen insecticides against Bruchophagus roddi Gussakovski was determined using a tarsal contact technique. The most active insecticide was the carbamate methomyl followed by the organophosphate methidathion and the pyrethroids cyfluthrin and cypermethrin. Persistence of residual activity was determined by exposing insects to irradiated insecticide residues on glass plates. Of those tested the pyrethroid cyfluthrin was the most persistent. These data are discussed with respect to toxicity to pollinating insects and the Heliothis pyrethroid resistance strategy.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 9-13
INGRAM, B. F. and NIMMO, P. R. Control of San Jose Scale Comstockaspis perniciosus (Comstock) on apples in the Stanthorpe district, Queensland …. 53
Two trials were carried out to evaluate chemicals for the control of San Jose scale, applied at the green tip stage of tree growth of apple trees in the Stanthorpe district, Queensland. In the 1983-84 trial chlorpyrifos, methidathion and winter oil 20 mL/L plus methidathion were the best treatments. Carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, dialifos, diazinon, lime sulphur, phosmet and winter oil 20 mL/L, all failed to give satisfactory control. Winter oil 30 mL/L gave satisfactory control on laterals but not on limbs. In the 1984-85 trial, all treatments, that is, winter oil 20 mL/L plus methidathion, winter oil 20 mL/L plus chlorpyrifos, methidathion, chlorpyrifos, winter oil 30 mL/L, winter oil 10 mL/L plus chlorpyrifos, and winter oil 20 mL/L plus chlorpyrifos 0.5 g/L followed 61 days later by chlorpyrifos, controlled scale on limbs and laterals. Control on fruit was acceptable for domestic grade fruit but unacceptable for export fruit. The inconsistent results with winter oil sprays are discussed.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 53-58
LEVOT, G. W. Humidity effects on lousicide toxicity, and efficacy of organophosphate/ cypermethrin mixtures to sheep body lice, Damalinia ovis (Schrank) in laboratory tests …………………………………. 41
High relative humidity increased the toxicity of propetamphos particularly, but to a lesser extent cypermethrin, in laboratory bioassays with the sheep body louse, Damalinia ovis. Mixtures of cypermethrin with chlorfenvinphos or propetamphos were tested for contact activity against two synthetic pyrethroid resistant populations of D. ovis. There was no evidence of potentiation of cypermethrin by either organophosphorus insecticide. Toxicity reflected the proportion of the most active component, cypermethrin, in the mixture.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 41-44
LEVOT, G. W. Chemical control of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae) on caged layer hens …………………………… 49
Folded cardboard cards stapled over the cage wire of layer hens were used to monitor infestations of poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae on a commercial egg farm in New South Wales. Pre-treatment infestation estimates indicated a heavy, but variable infestation within the shed. After a single thorough application of the registered products carbaryl (0.45%) and azamethiphos (0.25%) mites were not detected for 7 weeks. The experimental compound, permethrin (0.05%), used under pesticide permit, was similarly effective. A maldison (0.25%) spray failed to kill mites at one location, but eradicated them from all other sampling sites.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 49-52
RUSSELL, R. C. : Tribute to D. J. Lee …………………………….. 2
SMITH, D. The use of Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to control Planococcus cirri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in custard apples. ……………………………………………….. 3
The parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard was introduced into Queensland from California in 1980 to control citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) in citrus and custard apples. L. dactylopii became a common natural enemy of P. citri in custard apples from April to July each year. To increase its effect, augmentative releases from late December to mid April of a total of 10,000 parasitoids per ha were made in two orchards over three seasons between 1984 and 1989. Releases advanced activity of L. dactylopii by three months with the parasitoid present in 50-80% of mealybug infested fruit by March. The percentage of mealybug infested fruit was usually kept below 25% with less than 5% of fruit infested with populations of 10 or more third instars and/or adult females per fruit. Where there were no releases the corresponding percentages were 40% and 10% and where deltamethrin was used to suppress natural enemies, 80% and 40%. The lacewing Oligochrysa lutea (Walker) and the ladybird Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant occurred on 20-40% and 10-20% of infested fruit, respectively.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 3-8
SMITHERS, C. N. A new species of Dorypteryx Aaron (Psocoptera: Psyllipsocidae) described from Australia ……………………………………. 45
A new species of Dorypteryx Aaron, D. longipennis, is described from material intercepted by Quarantine Officers at Mascot Airport, Sydney.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 45-48
TREVERROW, N. and MADDOX, C. The distribution of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) between various types of banana plant material in relation to crop hygiene ……………………………. 15
The relative importance of various types of banana plant material as hosts for C. sordidus was examined and related to crop hygiene recommendations. Two techniques for assessing populations of C. sordidus in portions of banana plant were compared and discussed. The incidence of C. sordidus in immature plant material was also examined. Residual corms and fallen plants were major sources of population while residual pseudostems were less important. Since only the last two categories of material are amenable to crop hygiene the value of this procedure is limited. C. sordidus populations were detected in growing plants as young as pre-flowering stage.
General and Applied Entomology 23: 15-20
BOOK REVIEWS: Insects as Predators; Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Odonata of the world ………….. 14