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Indigenous and introduced dung beetles (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) of temperate Australia: A review of biology, importance and effect of climate change on population distributions.
Thomas Heddle, Michael Nash and Ken Henry
Both indigenous and introduced Australian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) play an important role in agricultural systems. Temperate grasslands in Australia are expected to have some of the greatest increases in temperature and reduction in precipitation due to climate change which may directly threaten dung beetles. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the development of larvae and fitness of young dung beetles. To understand if dung beetles can continue to provide ecosystem services across temperate Australia under changing management and climate, we review what is known about their life history traits that will facilitate their adaption.
We believe dung beetles will continue to provide valuable ecosystem services and have potential to aid in adapting and alleviating the impacts on crops and pastures from reduced and sporadic rainfall. However, the level of function, may be impeded due to climatic stress and a loss of diversity with thermal specialists and some indigenous species, expected to be displaced into narrower ranges. An increase in feeding competition from thermal generalists and introduced species will likely implement this movement. The evidence from naturalised introduced species indicate behavioural adaptations and/or phenotypic plasticity suggest some species will continuing to provide services that improve pasture production despite changes to climate. Ongoing monitoring of phenological shifts will inform adaptive management of this vital group.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 1-11
BOOK REVIEW. The Complete Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Australia (Second Edition)
General and Applied Entomology 49: 12
BOOK REVIEW. The Inside Out of Flies
General and Applied Entomology 49: 13
SCIENTIFIC NOTE. Blueberry Ash Eleocarpus reticulatus Sm. as a larval host of Uracanthus acutus Blackburn (CERAMBYCIDAE, CERAMBYCINAE, URACANTHINI).
Garry A. Webb
Blueberry Ash (Elaeocarpus reticulatus Sm.) is recorded as a larval host of Uracanthus acutus Blackburn for the first time. During 2019-20, U. acutus was reared from E. reticulatus from seven locations around Sydney. Previously, U. acutus was recorded from a range of native and cultivated plants but not previously from E. reticulatus. Larvae ringbark small branches on the main stem and then move through the centre of the branch towards the distal end of the trunk or main branch before returning close to the point of excision to pupate. Uracanthus acutus adults adopt an unusual stance that resembles a small twig, presumably as camouflage.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 17-21
Giant Pine Scale (Marchalina hellenica) not detected in New South Wales
Bernard C. Dominiak, Megan C. Power, Sarah Sullivan, Mathew Nagel and Angus J. Carnegie
Giant pine scale, Marchalina hellenica, is a pest of pines, firs and spruce trees. Marchalina hellenica is endemic to Greece and was detected in Australia in both Melbourne and Adelaide in 2014. To support the national eradication response under the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed, surveillance was undertaken to determine if the scale was present in New South Wales (NSW). This included Public Participation in Scientific Research surveys (by the public) and targeted site inspections (by government staff). A total of 283 sites were inspected across metropolitan Sydney and regional NSW resulting in more than 3,300 trees inspected with no positive detections. Additionally, data from forest health surveys of commercial Pinus plantations in regional NSW were used to declare pest-free status, with no giant pine scale detected in 260 site inspections. New South Wales was declared free from Marchalina hellenica. An eradication response was mounted in Melbourne and Adelaide, although it was ultimately unsuccessful..
General and Applied Entomology 49: 23-29
Guava Psidium guajava (L.) may have the potential to be a good host for many tephritids
Bernard C. Dominiak
Guava (Psidium guajava) is grown throughout the world and particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Fruit and other plant parts are used in folk and traditional medicine to treat a wide range of medical aliments. Guava is attractive to tephritids and a high percentage of crops are infested. I conducted a literature review to identify the host suitability index of ten tephritids. Most tephritids were reported in the highest category of “very good”, supporting >100 adults per kg of fruit. More research is required to further assess if guava is a very good host for other tephritids.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 31-34