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Indigenous and introduced dung beetles (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) of temperate Australia: A review of biology, importance and effect of climate change on population distributions.
Thomas Heddle, Michael Nash and Ken Henry
Both indigenous and introduced Australian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) play an important role in agricultural systems. Temperate grasslands in Australia are expected to have some of the greatest increases in temperature and reduction in precipitation due to climate change which may directly threaten dung beetles. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the development of larvae and fitness of young dung beetles. To understand if dung beetles can continue to provide ecosystem services across temperate Australia under changing management and climate, we review what is known about their life history traits that will facilitate their adaption.
We believe dung beetles will continue to provide valuable ecosystem services and have potential to aid in adapting and alleviating the impacts on crops and pastures from reduced and sporadic rainfall. However, the level of function, may be impeded due to climatic stress and a loss of diversity with thermal specialists and some indigenous species, expected to be displaced into narrower ranges. An increase in feeding competition from thermal generalists and introduced species will likely implement this movement. The evidence from naturalised introduced species indicate behavioural adaptations and/or phenotypic plasticity suggest some species will continuing to provide services that improve pasture production despite changes to climate. Ongoing monitoring of phenological shifts will inform adaptive management of this vital group.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 1-11
BOOK REVIEW. The Complete Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Australia (Second Edition)
General and Applied Entomology 49: 12
BOOK REVIEW. The Inside Out of Flies
General and Applied Entomology 49: 13
SCIENTIFIC NOTE. Blueberry Ash Eleocarpus reticulatus Sm. as a larval host of Uracanthus acutus Blackburn (CERAMBYCIDAE, CERAMBYCINAE, URACANTHINI).
Garry A. Webb
Blueberry Ash (Elaeocarpus reticulatus Sm.) is recorded as a larval host of Uracanthus acutus Blackburn for the first time. During 2019-20, U. acutus was reared from E. reticulatus from seven locations around Sydney. Previously, U. acutus was recorded from a range of native and cultivated plants but not previously from E. reticulatus. Larvae ringbark small branches on the main stem and then move through the centre of the branch towards the distal end of the trunk or main branch before returning close to the point of excision to pupate. Uracanthus acutus adults adopt an unusual stance that resembles a small twig, presumably as camouflage.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 17-21
Giant Pine Scale (Marchalina hellenica) not detected in New South Wales
Bernard C. Dominiak, Megan C. Power, Sarah Sullivan, Mathew Nagel and Angus J. Carnegie
Giant pine scale, Marchalina hellenica, is a pest of pines, firs and spruce trees. Marchalina hellenica is endemic to Greece and was detected in Australia in both Melbourne and Adelaide in 2014. To support the national eradication response under the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed, surveillance was undertaken to determine if the scale was present in New South Wales (NSW). This included Public Participation in Scientific Research surveys (by the public) and targeted site inspections (by government staff). A total of 283 sites were inspected across metropolitan Sydney and regional NSW resulting in more than 3,300 trees inspected with no positive detections. Additionally, data from forest health surveys of commercial Pinus plantations in regional NSW were used to declare pest-free status, with no giant pine scale detected in 260 site inspections. New South Wales was declared free from Marchalina hellenica. An eradication response was mounted in Melbourne and Adelaide, although it was ultimately unsuccessful..
General and Applied Entomology 49: 23-29
Guava Psidium guajava (L.) may have the potential to be a good host for many tephritids
Bernard C. Dominiak
Guava (Psidium guajava) is grown throughout the world and particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Fruit and other plant parts are used in folk and traditional medicine to treat a wide range of medical aliments. Guava is attractive to tephritids and a high percentage of crops are infested. I conducted a literature review to identify the host suitability index of ten tephritids. Most tephritids were reported in the highest category of “very good”, supporting >100 adults per kg of fruit. More research is required to further assess if guava is a very good host for other tephritids.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 31-34
An evaluation of Pyriproxyfen for control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say under semi-field conditions in Australia
Garry Webb, Peter Miller, Bryce Peters, Andrew Scrivener, Cameron Webb & Vladan Jovic
The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen in two formulations (Sumilarv 90 CS and Sumilarv 5 GR) was evaluated in semi-field trials for the control of immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. In the first trial, the two formulations were compared with the industry standard Prolink 50 CS (50g/L s-methoprene) at the field application rate for Prolink (ie. 11gai/ha or 3.7 ppb) in 50 L tubs. All three products produced 100% emergence inhibition of a single generation. In the second trial, Sumilarv 5 GR was evaluated in two-litre buckets over various nominal concentrations from 500ppb down to 0.5 ppb for five successive generations over 60 days. When applied as a granule, Sumilarv 5 GR produced 100% emergence inhibition across 5 generations. However, where serial dilutions of Sumilarv 5 GR treated water were tested, efficacy was greatly reduced. To investigate this phenomenon, the dilution process was repeated and samples analysed for pyriproxyfen content. The dilution process generated just 6 ppm (against the nominal 500 ppb) indicating that the granules were very stable in water and the pyriproxyfen was not readily released. Further, the pyriproxyfen content of water over 10 weeks following application of granules (nominal 500 ppb) showed an erratic but gradual release of active ingredient and a peak concentration of just 8.5 ppb at 1 week declining to below 1 ppb at 10 weeks. Pyriproxyfen was very effective in inhibiting emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults for multiple generations at less than 10 ppb, and probably much lower. Sumilarv 5 GR when applied directly to water at 0.1g/L (nominal 500ppb) provided emergence inhibition for at least five generations over 60 days. These results demonstrate that these products hold great potential to assist the management of mosquitoes of pest and public health concern
General and Applied Entomology 49: 35-42
Management of Bean Flower Thrips (Megalurothrips usitatus Bagnall) in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in North-west Cambodia
Robert Martin, Sophea Yous, Chariya Korn, Sopha Yous, Samnang Pheng, Ratha Rien and Srinivasan Ramasamy
Mungbean has potential for expansion as an opportunity crop planted on residual soil water after flood on active floodplains in Cambodia. However, mungbean production is severely affected by insect pests and excessive application of chemical insecticides has led to increased losses from secondary pests such as bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips usitatus Bagnall). In an exploratory study, we evaluated the effectiveness of blue and yellow sticky traps as part of an integrated management strategy to control bean flower thrips in mungbean at three locations in Battambang province in the early dry season 2021. The sites were situated in three different agro-ecological systems: semi-urban (Sala Balat); lowland rice (Os Tuk); and intensive mungbean (Preaek Trab). Blue sticky traps, impregnated with thrip pheromone, were six-times more effective than yellow traps for capturing thrips. Thrip numbers varied between sites but increased in a linear fashion between 15 and 35 days after sowing at Preak Trab which has a history of intensive insecticide use in mungbean. A concern with blue traps was that they were more effective than yellow traps for capturing beneficial ground beetles, rove beetles and hoverflies. Therefore, further study is required to determine potential adverse impacts of deployment of blue sticky traps. This study confirmed the potential value for blue sticky traps to monitor and potentially control bean flower thrips in mungbean in North-West Cambodia. We also put forward a range of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) options to manage bean flower thrips in mungbean and the challenge is to find a way to have them adopted. Transfer of technical information in this community is primarily through the village network, especially for information on fertilisers and pesticides. The key to an effective strategy is to engage the key influencers on insect pest management to facilitate adoption of IPM in mungbean.
General and Applied Entomology 49: 43-57